Such arguments have bred the loss and damage debate in an effort to improve our knowledge of what such limits may entail. Measuring and evaluating loss and damage will not be straightforward however.
Like many researchers have noted before, there are limits to using historical data to measure climate change that is exponentially increasing. It is important to clarify what is meant by the term and how we will choose to evaluate it before discussions such as compensation can be had. Up until Warsaw, the debate was supported by developing countries in a bid to regain some of the damages caused by environmental stressors within their borders.
This not only constructed a barrier between developed and developing countries but also between developing countries that disagreed as to what the best tactic was to approach the issue. The latter can be better recognized within the Least Developed Countries LDC Group that represents 49 states but remains divided as to their goals and objective in the loss and damage debate. The thirteenth Conference of the Parties COP in Bali, Indonesia, was the first time Parties called for an understanding of risk management, risk reduction and risk transfer — topics now synonymous with loss and damage.
While this helped get the research started, strong consideration of loss and damage only began following COP 16 in Cancun, Mexico, that launched a work programme for enhanced understanding. It quickly became clear that discussions related to compensation were being put on the sidelines until better research was presented.
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While this was frustrating for many countries especially those experiencing more severe weather events, Warsaw has demonstrated Parties are continuously making progress on the issue. Typhoon Haiyan: Philippines envoy urges countries to act. The WIM on loss and damage was created at a time where negotiations were heated and arguments in favour of a loss and damage mechanism were strong. Furthermore, negotiations were made following the events of Typhoon Haiyan that hit the Philippines, Micronesia and Vietnam just days prior. It will remain under the Cancun Adaptation Framework until COP 22 but it ensures Parties to the Convention will continue to engage in conversations and will work towards producing concrete outcomes on loss and damage.
Specifically, Parties agreed that there needs to be enhanced understanding of risk management and gaps in current management approaches alongside a strengthening of dialogue and coordination between relevant stakeholders involved in loss and damage.
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