Her study indicates that both the hosts and the guests resort to politeness strategies. The primary strategy adopted by the hosts is to observe the Approbation Maxim, exalting the positive qualities of the guests. By comparison, the guests resort to a variety of strategies of politeness, abiding by such maxims as modesty, agreement, obligation, and approbation.
The use of these strategies on both sides helps to maintain or establish a harmonious relationship between them, as well as with the audience present. For the guests, it also contributes to the building and maintaining of their nice public image. Beihang University. Wei Ren investigates the linguistic strategies employed by the host in a radio-mediated call-in programme in China as a means of identity construction.
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Doreen D. Her major research interests and publications have been in the areas of Chinese sociolinguistics and comparative discourse studies of media. Hong Kong Polytechnic University. She is an active practitioner in the field of Communication and Media, and her research interests focus on sociolinguistic study of New Media Communication. They argue that the reputable individuals used these relational acts as well as related features to build relational connectedness with their followers.
They discover that such SNSs have formed a new literary practice that reflects both traditional and new ways of constructing facework see Davies ; Wu and Feng ; Zhao, Grasmuck and Marin Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal of linguistics and applied linguistics Modern Foreign Languages. He has published papers in Intercultural Pragmatics, Journal of Pragmatics, Pragmatics and Society, and in some top journals of linguistics in Chinese.
Politeness in Historical and Contemporary Chinese
Northwest Normal University. She has also published papers about language teaching in journals such as e-Education Research and Journal of Northwest Adult Education. Yongping Ran and Qian Chen focus on advice-giving in the Ph. It is found that while the supervisors provide the students with some help for the improvement of their dissertation, they also take into account interactional goals which are about the management of personal or interpersonal relationships with the students.
As a consequence, the supervisors are found to adopt some strategies for constructing collective identities as well for managing rapport relations with the students. National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan. National Chung Cheng University. She has published papers in sociolinguistic variation in journals such as Language Learning, Language and Linguistics, and Oceanic Linguistics. She has published several research papers on pragmatics and textual analysis of academic discourse in journals such as Foreign Languages and Their Teaching and presented at several international conferences such as the 6th International Conference on Intercultural Pragmatics and Communication.
Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications. She has published several papers on pragmatic teaching in journals such as Foreign Languages and Their Teaching. Liyin Zhang and Xiaoyan Wang focus on how panelists do rapport management when expressing disagreement at conference discussions. Based on an in-depth analysis of the utterances collected from academic conference discussions in the field of linguistics, they show the strategies the panelists adopt to manage face and sociality rights and interactional goals in the activity, and investigate the influencing factors concerned.
The study demonstrates that disagreement, though a risky communicative act, is not necessarily meant to be face-threatening, but rather it can be a site for the management of rapport between or among interlocutors. Panelists craftily combine the components of disagreement with other strategies to fulfil the purpose of rapport management.
University of Hong Kong. She has published papers in interlanguage and intercultural pragmatics in journals such as Journal of Pragmatics, Pragmatics, Multilingua and Intercultural Pragmatics. She is also interested in second L2 language learning in the academic context and her work has appeared in journals such as Language and Education, System, Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. Winnie has worked for several large-scale research projects which are related to English language diagnostic assessment and e-learning for Vocational English communication in Hong Kong.
Cynthia Lee and Winnie Shum manifest how in Internet discussion forums, the Cantonese interlocutors present opposite views when they disagree. Their study indicates that the interlocutors adhere to their traditional values to do justice and make moral judgement, and shows that the interlocutors employ these as tactics for implicit disagreement and empowerment, leaving the implied meaning to the others. She has published papers in pragmatics and cognitive linguistics in journals such as Journal of Pragmatics, Intercultural Pragmatics, and Foreign Language Education.
California State University, San Bernardino. His research interests are pragmatics and cognitive linguistics. He has published several books and more than 50 articles in these and other areas of linguistics and serves on the governing and editorial boards of associations and journals. Simply put, positive politeness undergirds almost all instances of backchanneling in Chinese TV interviews. Not all royal titles are listed. The following were used when addressing government and military officials. Often, their title e.
It's not used as 2nd person pronoun. Similarly, the possessive case "your" is avoided. The following honorifics are used to show respect when referencing the addressee's family members. Often, the addressee's profession or title or as a suffix after their name is used as an honorific form of address. Below are some common titles. Below is a list of common honorific prefixes and suffixes used with nouns and proper nouns to show intimacy, humility, honor, or respect.
Some may have shown up in pronoun discussions. Because Chinese words are usually formed also by combining multiple root characters each with a literal meaning , it is not always immediately apparent when using a polite version of a word that an honorific modifier is in use. Similar to nouns, verbs can be complemented with honorific prefixes to form more polite versions.
Below are some examples. There are innumerable words nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs in the Chinese language with specific humble, respectful, or beautifying honorific connotations, in addition to the base meaning of the word. It is not possible to catalog them all, but some additional examples are provided in this section. These words are often used in lieu of a bland, neutral, or deprecating alternative to show deference, respect, or elegance.
Some familial honorifics and examples were described in the sections above. This section consolidates the common contemporary familial prefixes and suffixes; some usages may be regional.
Also see article on Chinese Kinship. Salutation is used at the beginning of a speech or a letter to address the audience or recipient s. Below are a few examples in contemporary Chinese:. Chinese letter writing, especially in Classical Chinese, employs a highly complex system of unique honorifics and honorific rule sets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand.
Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts , without removing the technical details. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. China portal. Honorifics by language. Accessed 21 August Sino-Platonic Papers , June Categories : Chinese honorifics. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Articles needing additional references from July All articles needing additional references Wikipedia articles that are too technical from March All articles that are too technical Articles needing expert attention from March All articles needing expert attention Articles containing Chinese-language text Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text.
Employed by the king out of respect for his father, who usually though not always had predeceased him.
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Employed by the emperor out of modesty regarding his administration cf. The original generic first-person pronoun, arrogated to the emperors during the reign of Shi Huangdi. Comparable to the royal we. Originally by pre-imperial kings. Employed by the emperor before the empress dowager and by the imperial family before their parents or the emperor's other consorts. Employed by officials when addressing the emperor, based on a word that originally meant "slave" during the Zhou dynasty.
Employed by officials when addressing other bureaucrats of lower rank. Commonly found in fiction. Literally "smaller-born" but Chinese uses the idea of "big" and "small" in reference to age — e. Occasionally used in contemporary Chinese. Literally "unlike", but implying the speaker is unequal to the capability and talent of his audience. The implied context is "Your Majesty, beneath whose ceremonial ramp [I am standing]". It was used by officials when they addressed the emperor directly. May be used when addressing the emperor directly or when referring to the emperor in the third person.watch
Chinese honorifics - Wikipedia
Used when referring to the emperor in the third person, especially when the emperor was on the move. Of Ten Thousand Years. It may be roughly translated as "Long live the Emperor! Used when addressing members of the imperial family, such as princes and princesses. Literally "one thousand years", used to address Empresses, Dowagers, Crown Princes and other high-ranking imperials. The Taiping Rebellion also had a particular rank system based on how many "thousand years" a lord is entitled to. Used by the emperor and members of the imperial family when they address officials.
A honorific used for an official or a person in authority. Used when addressing important people, or to show respect to the person. Equivalent to Excellency. Used when addressing an elder or someone in the same profession who is more senior than the speaker. It is usually used in formal writing when addressing a person of similar social status. Literally means "you, who share the same ambition with me".
Used by members of the Nationalist and Communist parties to address fellow members of the same conviction, thus it can translate to "comrade". It is also used by some older citizens in China to address strangers. Could be either addressing one's own younger brother or referring to the addressee's younger brother. A prefix to show affection for lovers. Means "you" when talking directly to wife. When introducing her to others it means "my wife".
Contemporary in 3rd person only. Contemporary use not as second person pronoun, but more as a respectful honorific for an older friend. A prefix for persons and others things affiliated to the addressee.
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