Epidemiological aspects of osteoarthritis. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl ; MR imaging of articular cartilage. Radiology ; Meniscal tears: MR and arthrographic findings after arthroscopic repair. Oppelt A.
Electromedica ; Cartilage substitutes: Overview of basic science and treatment options. J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; Linklater J, Potter HG. Imaging of chondral defects. Oper Tech Orthop ; Accuracy of T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging with fat saturation in detecting cartilage defects in the knee: Comparison with arthroscopy in patients.
Outerbridge RE. The etiology of chondromalacia patellae. Associations of anatomical measures from MRI with radiographically defined knee osteoarthritis score, pain, and physical functioning. J Bone Joint Surg Am ; Cartilaginous defects of the femorotibial joint: Accuracy of coronal short inversion time inversion-recovery MR sequence. Subchondral bone marrow edema in patients with degeneration of the articular cartilage of the knee joint. Cruciate ligament integrity in osteoarthritis of the knee. People with various implants usually metallic or with metal in their bodies including some tattoos may have difficulty with an MRI, which utilizes a strong magnetic field.
The imaging physician needs to be informed of any of these potential problems. You will lay on the scanning table feet first with arms at your side. Coils special devices to improve image quality will be placed around your arm or part of your arm. The scanning table will slide your lower body into the magnet.
During the scan you will not feel anything, but will hear intermittent humming, thumping, clicking and knocking sounds. Earplugs will be provided to help mask the noise and allow you to listen to music. In some cases, the imaging physician requests a contrast agent dye to improve the quality of the images. The dye is injected into a vein in the arm, and may cause a cool sensation. There are no restrictions placed upon you. You may eat or drive as normal, although if you took relaxation medication, you will need someone to drive you home. Your films will be examined by an imaging physician and a report sent to your doctor.
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Your doctor will review the results with you. The S. All Rights Reserved. A c 3 non-profit organization. The translations may include errors or change the intended meaning of the text. Please consult your healthcare provider about any medical information. Translations may not be available for some items, including PDF documents, maps, video captions, and text that appears on photos.
Also, some features on the website may not work in the translated versions. Translated from English by This website translates English to other languages using an automated tool. MRI Breast. For more information, consult your radiologist. Some facilities use smaller extremity scanners to image the joints of the arms or legs.
With this type of system, you may recline or sit next to the MRI unit, while only the body part being scanned is placed inside the machine. Although these are smaller systems, they usually produce high quality images due to the unit's powerful magnet. Instead, radio waves re-align hydrogen atoms that naturally exist within the body.
This does not cause any chemical changes in the tissues. As the hydrogen atoms return to their usual alignment, they emit different amounts of energy depending on the type of body tissue they are in. The scanner captures this energy and creates a picture using this information.
In most MRI units, the magnetic field is produced by passing an electric current through wire coils. Other coils are located in the machine and, in some cases, are placed around the part of the body being imaged. These coils send and receive radio waves, producing signals that are detected by the machine. The electric current does not come in contact with the patient. A computer processes the signals and creates a series of images, each of which shows a thin slice of the body.
Knee MRI Scan | Medical Tests | UCSF Medical Center
These images can be studied from different angles by the radiologist. MRI is able to tell the difference between diseased tissue and normal tissue better than x-ray, CT and ultrasound. You will be positioned on the moveable exam table. Straps and bolsters may be used to help you stay still and maintain your position. Small devices that contain coils that send and receive radiofrequency pulses may be placed around your knee to help improve image quality.
If a contrast material is used, a doctor, nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous catheter IV line into a vein in your hand or arm that will be used to inject the contrast material. You will be placed into the magnet of the MRI unit. The technologist will perform the exam while working at a computer outside of the room. If a contrast material is used during the exam, it will be injected into the intravenous line IV after an initial series of scans.
More images will be taken during or following the injection. When the exam is complete, you may be asked to wait while the radiologist checks the images in case more are needed. If your child requires sedation to complete the MRI, you may be asked to come early for the exam in order for your child to be evaluated prior to sedation. Sedation may add 15 to 30 minutes to the procedure.
Your child may need to stay additional time to be monitored as the sedation wears off. In selected patients, arthrography will be performed first. During that procedure, contrast material may be injected into the knee joint space before MRI in order to image the joint structures in more detail. Arthrography may require imaging guidance to place a needle into the knee joint. For MR arthrographic examinations, you will experience a slight pinprick and may feel a momentary burning if a local anesthesia is used to numb the skin over the joint area before the contrast is injected.
When the contrast material is injected, it is normal to feel coolness and a flushing sensation for a moment. You may hear gurgling when the joint is moved.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee
The needle may cause you some discomfort when it is inserted and you may experience some bruising once it is removed. There is also a very small chance of irritation of your skin at the site of the needle insertion. You may experience some mild discomfort and swelling that should last not more than a few days following the procedure. If you develop a fever, which may indicate an infection, contact your doctor or seek medical attention.
Arrange for someone to drive you home after the procedure. See the Conventional Arthrography page for more information. Most MRI exams are painless. However, some patients find it uncomfortable to remain still. Others may feel closed-in claustrophobic while in the MRI scanner. The scanner can be noisy. Sedation may be arranged for anxious patients, but fewer than one in 20 require it.
It is normal for the area of your body being imaged to feel slightly warm, but if it bothers you, notify the radiologist or technologist. It is important that you remain perfectly still while the images are being recorded, which is typically only a few seconds to a few minutes at a time. You will know when images are being recorded because you will hear tapping or thumping sounds when the coils that generate the radiofrequency pulses are activated.
You will be able to relax between imaging sequences, but will be asked to maintain your position as much as possible.
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You will usually be alone in the exam room during the MRI procedure. However, the technologist will be able to see, hear and speak with you at all times using a two-way intercom. Many MRI centers allow a friend or parent to stay in the room as long as they are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. You may be offered or you may request earplugs to reduce the noise of the MRI scanner, which produces loud thumping and humming noises during imaging.
Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Some scanners have music to help you pass the time.
If you have an exam that requires an injection of intravenous contrast material, it is normal to feel coolness and a flushing sensation for a minute or two following the injection. The intravenous needle may cause you some discomfort when it is inserted and once it is removed, you may experience some bruising. There is also a very small chance of irritation of your skin at the site of the IV tube insertion.
If you have not been sedated, no recovery period is necessary. You may resume your usual activities and normal diet immediately after the exam. A few patients experience side effects from the contrast material, including nausea and local pain. Very rarely, patients are allergic to the contrast material and experience hives, itchy eyes or other reactions.
If you experience allergic symptoms, a radiologist or other physician will be available for immediate assistance. There is no recovery time from an MRI scan, unless you need sedation. After the scan, you can resume your normal diet, activity and medications.
A radiologist, a doctor trained to supervise and interpret radiology exams, will analyze the images. The radiologist will send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will share the results with you. High-quality images are assured only if you are able to remain perfectly still while the images are being recorded. If you are anxious, confused or in severe pain, you may find it difficult to lie still during imaging.
Constant coughing and shaking might also interfere with the scan.
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